Efrain Araujo Perini *, Mikhail Skopchenko, Tran Thu Hong , Rahmat Harianto , Alexis Maître, Maidelys Rosa Rodríguez Rodríguez , Nathalia de Oliveira Santos , Yinglei Guo, Xiangyu Qin , Carlos A. Zeituni and Valeriia N. Starovoitova Pages 187 - 200 ( 14 )
Background: A significant number of developing countries have no facilities to produce medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals.
Objective: In this paper we show that access to life-saving radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals and the geographical distribution of corresponding infrastructure is highly unbalanced worldwide.
Methods: We discuss the main issues which need to be addressed in order to establish the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, which are especially important for developing countries as newcomers in the field. The data was gathered from several sources, including databases maintained by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), and other international organizations; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; and relevant literature.
Results: Developing radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production program and installing corresponding infrastructure requires significant investments, both man-power and financial. Support already exists to help developing countries establish their medical radioisotope production installations from several organizations, such as IAEA.
Conclusion: This work clearly shows that access to life-saving radioisotopes and the geographical distribution of corresponding infrastructure is highly unbalanced. Technology transfer is important as it not only immediately benefits patients, but also provides employment, economic activity and general prosperity in the region to where the technology transfer is implemented.
Radioisotope production, radiopharmaceuticals, developing countries, nuclear medicine, radioisotopes in medical applications, IAEA.
Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria., 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP, National Nuclear Center, Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, 23 Building, 2 Krasnoarmeyskaya Street, 071100, Kurchatov, Nuclear Research Institute, 01 Nguyen Tu Luc St., Ward 9, Dalat City, Lam Dong, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), North Petojo, Jl. Gajah Mada 8, RT.1/RW.2, Krukut, Tamansari, Daerah Khusus Ibukota 11120, Jakarta, INVAP S.E., Avenida Comandante Luis Piedrabuena 4950, R8403CPV, Bariloche, National Centre for Nuclear Safety. Street 28, building 504, Miramar, Playa, La Habana, Eckert & Ziegler Brasil Isotope Solution, Rua Miguel Nelsom Bechara, 480, Jardim Pereira Leite, ZIP 02712-130, Sao Paulo - SP, GAOTONG Isotope Co. Ltd., Chengdu, CIRCHTA Ltd., Beijing, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria., 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP, Niowave Inc, 1012 N Walnut St, Lansing, 48906, MI