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Dosimetry and Radiobiology of Alpha-Particle Emitting Radionuclides

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

George Sgouros*, Robert Hobbs and Anders Josefsson   Pages 209 - 214 ( 6 )

Abstract:


Background: Radiopharmaceutical therapy is a cancer treatment modality by which radiation is delivered directly to targeted tumor cells or to their microenvironment. This makes it possible to deliver highly potent alpha-particle radiation. The short-range and highly potent nature of alpha-particles require a dosimetry methodology that considers microscale distributions of the alpha-emitting agent. The high energy deposition density along an alpha-particle track causes a spectrum of DNA lesions. The majority of these are irreparable DNA double-stranded breaks. Accordingly the biologic effects of alpha- particles are largely impervious to the adaptive and resistance mechanism that renders other therapeutics ineffectual.

Objectives: In this review, the radiobiology and dosimetry of alpha-particle emitting radionuclides as related to their use in radiopharmaceutical therapy, are presented.

Conclusion: Alpha-particle emitter radiopharmaceutical therapy is distinguished from other treatment modalities. Its safe clinical use requires an understanding of its unique dosimetry and radiobiology.

Keywords:

Radiopharmaceutical therapy, alpha-particles, treatment planning, DNA damage, relative biological efficacy.

Affiliation:

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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